As an educator, having taught for over ten years as a primary school teacher, I have come to experience a wide-range of diversity among my students, but the most important aspect of teaching were the parents involvement and its impact on their child. Diversity come in different cultural backgrounds, socio-economics, religion, social and emotional skills, and pre-existing knowledge that was formulated before entering school through the family’s expectations.
Many church leaders and theologians say that the 21st century is the period of spirituality for the Christianity. Although most believers know the necessity and urgency of being empowered by the Spirit, they don't seem to know how, or what it looks like. Though there are many talks on spirituality, people are still wanting to know how to experience and live out evangelical spirituality.
Thesis 8 is the contrapuntal comparison with the previous thesis 7. While thesis 7 dealt with the works of the righteous, thesis 8 discusses human works; works done by, and in the pure confidence of “natural power” alone. In other words, if works done by the righteous without fear of God are deadly sins, more so are those deeds done in the confidence of "natural power." What Luther continues to stress in Theses 7 and 8 is the issue of the fear of God.
Grace to you and peace, from God our Father and from our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. Amen. In many respects, there seems to be obvious differences between Korea and America. One of these differences is the price of healthcare. It is a well-known fact that the hospital bills in America are some of the most expensive in the world. Recently, one of our church members, who does not have health insurance, had to have an endoscopy and blood test done.
Dr. Young Lee Hertig shares her thoughts on the influence that the ABC series Fresh Off the Boat may have on Asian American representation in the media.
Luther, in Thesis 7, introduces a new note that the works done by the righteous, in grace, are deadly sins when there is no fear of God. It looks to be a shocking proposition for Christians. If so, who is the righteous and when then are the works of the righteous mortal sin? To understand this thesis, we have to know what the medieval penitential practice is. As I mentioned earlier in Thesis 2, the scholastic theologians in Middle Age, including Thomas Aquinas, in spite of Adam’s corruption, the innate understanding of the good has its source in an uncorrupted state or condition of human nature.
Lately, the Islamic State (ISIS), a militant Islamic group that just recently decapitated two Japanese hostages, a freelance journalist Kenji Goto and security contractor Haruna Yukawa, caught the attention of the world. Why does Islam continue have internal disputes amongst itself, and why does ISIS continue to kill innocent people in the name of Islam?
Church consultant and Christian Post contributor Chuck Lawless just summed up the top 10 distractions of worship music, which he hopes to help improve the musical element of worship, and not come across as judgmental or offensive.
Luther here proposes the difficult concept that the works of God through man are not without sin. In other words, even those works that God does in us are not accounted as “eternal merits” because they are supposedly without sin. None of our works, not even those done in us by God, are without sin. Luther quoted Ecclesiastes 7:20 to prove his thesis: “Surely there is not a righteous man on earth who does good and never sins.” Some would want to interpret the passage to say that a righteous man may indeed sin, but not when he is doing good.
Like thesis 3 and 4, thesis 5 and 6 are also parallel and contrasting assertions. They are here to pinpoint and bring the sinfulness of humans more clearly to light, by the light of the cross. While thesis 5 focuses on the good works that humans do in their own power, thesis 6 deals with the works that God does in us.
On 31 October 1517, Luther posted the ninety-five theses on indulgences on the north door of the castle church at Wittenberg. This date is recognized as a landmark day for most historians as well as Church historians. In many people’s opinion, the day that Luther hammered this thesis on to the church door was the day that the medieval Church suffered a fatal blow. In addition, many also believe that Luther’s dissent on the sale on indulgences led to the Reformation.
After affirming that the works of man are likely to be mortal sins, Luther begins thesis 4 as the discussion of divine works in contrast to human works. Theses 3 and 4 can be taken together because they are parallel in construction and set up the fundamental contrast. This contrast is an important way to explain the fundamental difference between ‘the theology of the glory’ and ‘the theology of the cross.’
Like other theses, the third thesis should be reflected in the connection with the second thesis. Luther argued that after Adam and Eve’s corruption, all humans are so totally corrupted that there is not reminder of us which is affected toward the good in Thesis 2. In an expansion of thesis 2, the third thesis Luther dealt with is that human works outwardly seem attractive and good, but without grace and faith, they are likely to be mortal sins.
This thesis extends the focus of the first thesis. The first thesis deals with doing good works under Divine Law, while this thesis deals with human works according to the constant prompting of “natural powers” within us. The revealed law of God cannot advance fallen beings toward righteousness. Much less, how is “natural power” in us able to do so? To understand this thesis, we need a better understanding of the scholastic theology in the late Middle Ages.
In my last column, I explained that the 28 theological theses of the Heidelberg Disputation (1518) can be divided into four general sections. Now, we will examine the first thesis of the first section (the Problem of Good Works: Thesis 1-12). The question with which Luther had wrestled in the late medieval age is the question we have identified as lying at the heart of the Christian doctrine of justification: What is meant by righteousness itself? What advances sinners on the way to righteousness before God?